What Is DOS Attack & How its Work

What Is DOS Attack & How its Work?

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DoS attack is used to tie up a website’s resources so that users who need to access the site cannot do so. Many major companies have been the focus of DoS attacks. Because of a DoS the attack can be easily engineered from nearly any location, finding those responsible can be extremely difficult.

While an attack that crashes a server can often be dealt with successfully by simply rebooting the system, flooding attacks can be more difficult to recover. (DDoS)the attack, in which attack traffic comes from a large number of sources, can be even more difficult.
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How Does the DoS attack works?
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How a dos attack work
In a DoS attack, a computer is rigged to send not just one “introduction” to a server, but hundreds or thousands. The server — which cannot tell that the introductions are fake — sends back its usual response, waiting up to a minute in each case to hear a reply. When it gets no reply, the server shuts down the connection, and the computer executing the attack repeats, sending a new batch of fake requests.

DoS attacks mostly affect organizations and how they run in a connected world. For consumers, the attacks hinder their ability to access services and information.

There are two general methods of DoS attacks: flooding services or crashing services. 
Flooding attacksFlooding is the more common form of DoS attacks. It occurs when the attacked system is overwhelmed by large amounts of traffic that the server is unable to handle. The system eventually stops.

Buffer overflow attacks – the most common DoS attack. The concept is to send more traffic to a network address than the programmers have built the system to handle.
ICMP flood – leverages misconfigured network devices by sending spoofed packets that ping every computer on the targeted network, instead of just one specific machine. This attack is also known as the smurf attack or ping of death.
SYN Flood - An SYN flood is a variation that exploits a vulnerability in the TCP connection sequence. 

Crash attacks

when cybercriminals transmit bugs that exploit flaws in the targeted system.

Signs of a DoS Attack

  • An inability to reach a particular website;
  • A higher than usual volume of spam email.
  • Difficulty accessing a website.
  • Interruption of network traffic.
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Preventing a DoS attack

  • Easy installation on Apache and IIS servers.
  • Strong security against known and emerging hacking attacks.
  • Best-of-breed predefined security rules for instant protection.
  • Interface and API for managing multiple servers with ease.
  • Requires no additional hardware, and easily scales with your business.

DOS Attack Types 

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Types of DOS Attacks

Teardrop Attack

In a teardrop DoS attack, the attacker sends IP data packets in the form of fragments to the victim system.

User Datagram Protocol flooding

User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is an unreliable packet. This means the sender of the data does not care if the receiver has received it. In UDP flooding, many UDP packets are sent to the victim at random ports.

Ping of Death

Ping of Death manipulates IP protocols by sending malicious pings to a system. 


Exploits for servers can also cause DDoS vulnerability. A lot of web applications are hosted on web servers, such as Apache and Tomcat. If there is a vulnerability in these web servers, the attacker can launch an exploit against the vulnerability.

SYN flood

 The attacker sends a lot of SYN packets and the server waits for the final ACK until timeout. Hence, the server exhausts its resources waiting for ACK. This kind of attack is called SYN flooding.

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DOS Attacks Tools

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Types of DOS Attacks Tools
  • LOIC (Low Orbit Ion Cannon)
  • XOIC
  • HULK (HTTP Unbearable Load King)
  • R-U-Dead-Yet
  • Tor’s Hammer
  • PyLoris

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