• What is TCP/IP Model ?

    TCP / IP Model

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    TCP/IP Model

    TCP/IP means Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol. It was designed and developed by the Department of Defense (DoD) in the 1960s and is based on standard protocols. The TCP/IP model is a concise version of the OSI model. TCP/IP can also be used as a communications protocol in a private network.

    It Support for a flexible architecture. Adding more machines to a network was easy for the TCP modelThe network was robust, and connections remained intact until the source and destination machines were functioning.

    It contains four layers, unlike seven layers in the OSI model. The layers are:
    • Application Layer
    • Host-to-Host/Transport Layer
    • Internet Layer
    • Network Access/Link Layer

    Application Layer:-

    • This layer performs the functions of the top three layers of the OSI model: Application, Presentation and Session Layer. All three layers merge into a single layer in the TCP/IP Model.
    • An Application Layer is a top layer in TCP/IP.
    • One application layer protocol wants to communicate with another application layer, it forwards its data to the transport layer.
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    TCP/IP Model


    Following are the main protocols used in the application layer:-

    • HTTP: -  HTTP stands for Hypertext transfer protocol.  It is used by the World Wide Web to manage communications between web browsers and servers. And  It is also used to transfer Webpages and such resources from the Web Server or HTTP server to the Web Client or the HTTP client.
    • SNMP: - SNMP stands for Simple Network Management Protocol. It is used to manage the devices on the internet.
    • SMTP: SMTP stands for Simple mail transfer protocol. which is used to transport electronic mail between a source and destination.
    • DNS: DNS stands for Domain Name System.  Every host in a network has a logical address called the IP address. It is generated by DNS. Therefore, the system that maps the name to the address is known as the Domain Name System.
    • TELNET: It is an abbreviation for Terminal Network. It establishes the connection between the local computer and remote computers.
    • FTP: FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. It used for transferring files between two hosts.
    • NTP – NTP stands for Network Time Protocol. It is very useful in situations like bank transactions.

    Transport Layer:-

    • It is used for end-to-end communication and error-free delivery of data.
    • Functions such as multiplexing, segmenting or splitting into the data is done by transport layer.
    • The two main protocols that operate at this layer are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
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    TCP/IP Model Protocols

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
    • TCP(Transmission Control Protocol): It is a reliable connection-oriented protocol which handles byte-stream from source to destination without error and flow control.
    • It also has an acknowledgment feature and controls the flow of the data through a flow control mechanism.
    • It creates a virtual circuit between the sender and receiver, and it is active for the duration of the transmission.
    • The TCP header is 20 to 24 bytes in size
    UDP(User-Datagram Protocol)

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    • UDP(User-Datagram Protocol): It is an unreliable connectionless protocol that does not want TCPs, sequencing and flows control. 
    • User Datagram Protocol discovers the error and ICMP protocol reports the error to the sender that user datagram has been damaged.
    If You Read About What is Networking Devices? Click On Link and Read Out.

    Internet Layer:-

    • It helps the packet to travel independently to the destination.
    • The internet layer is also known as the network layer.
    • IP (Internet Protocol) is used in this layer.


    Following are the protocols used in this layer are:-

    As IP receives segments from TCP or UDP, it adds a header with source IP address and destination IP address amongst other information. 

    • Host-to-host communication: It determines the path through which the data is to be transmitted.
    • Routing:-There are many routing protocols used to make a well define network architecture? And all packets suggest the smallest best path.

    ARP Protocol
    • ARP stands for Address Resolution Protocol.
    • ARP is a network layer protocol which is used to find the physical address from the IP address.
    •  ARP has different types: Reverse ARP, Proxy ARP, Gratuitous ARP, and Inverse ARP.

    ICMP Protocol
    • ICMP stands for Internet Control Message Protocol.
    • Destination Network Unreachable – If a packet cannot be routed to the network in which the destination address resides, the router will drop the packet and generate an ICMP message back to the source informing that the destination network is unreachable.
    • An ICMP protocol mainly uses two terms:
    • ICMP Test: ICMP The test is used to test whether the destination is reachable or not.
    • ICMP Reply: ICMP The reply is used to check whether the destination device is responding or not.

    Network Access Layer –

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    • A network layer is a combination of the Physical layer and Data Link layer
    • Packets from the Internet layer are sent down the Network Access layer for delivery within the physical network. 
    • This layer is mainly responsible for the transmission of the data between two devices on the same network.
    • The protocols used by this layer are ethernet, token ring, FDDI, X.25, frame relay.

    Advantages of TCP/IP:-

    • TCP/IP is more reliable
    • TCP/IP does not have very strict boundaries.
    • TCP/IP follow a horizontal approach.
    • It is compatible with all operating systems
    • It is scalable.
    • It easily Supports Many routing protocols.

    Disadvantages of TCP/IP:–

    • Replacing the protocol is not easy.
    • It has not clearly separated its services, interfaces, and protocols.
    • The transport layer does not deliver all packets securely.

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