• what is Computer networking & Its Topology?

    Computer Networking


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    wired networking
    A networking infrastructure is a combination of network devices like router, hub, switch. or It is a collection of computers, servers and peripherals devices.
    It is mainly used for sharing the data and resources from one place to another with the help of internet.


    The computer network devices exchange the data between devices with the help of nodes. The nodes are established data links through the cables or wires.
    The best example of networking is the Internet, it connects billions of peoples all over the world.

    *Computer the network supports many application and services such as


    • ü -www(world wide web)
    • ü -storage servers
    • ü -a fax machine

    First computer network

    The ARPANET (The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network ) one of the earliest computer networks was developed by Leonard Kleinrock in 1961. But it started in 1969 using packet switching.

    Types of networking:-

    v -wired networking
    v -wireless networking

    Wired networking

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    wired networking


    Wired networking used wire, cables or optical fiber to connect different devices such as computers or desktop to the internet.

    Ethernet cable is mostly used in the market because of its low cost and durable and fiber optics used for longer distance and fastest speed. fiber optics it's very expensive as compare to the ethernet cable.


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    Wireless networking

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    wireless networking

    Wireless networking used radio signal or radio waves over the air and allow devices to stay connected to the network. Example Wi-Fi signal.  A modern it for from a router but still connected to the network.

    Wired networking Topologies

    There are 6 types of topologies mainly used:-

    One computer is connected to the many different computers on the same network mechanism with the help of wire or cable is called network topology.

    BUS TOPOLOGY

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    Bus topology in networking
    In this topology, many computers are connected to each other on a network in a linear form.
    • ·       use in a small network.
    • · it's easy to implement.
    • · it's easy to understand.
    • ·       every device connected to a single cable.

    What Is Networking Devices? And Its Types.

        RING TOPOLOGY
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    Ring topology in networking

    Each computer is connected to others on the network in the form a ring and two neighbor computer for each computer.
    Ø -cheap to install and expand
    Ø data is transferred in a sequential manner.
    Ø -the direction of data transmission is unidirectional.
    Ø -failure of one computer its destory whole network.


    STAR TOPOLOGY

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    Star topology in networking

    All the computer are connected to a single network device through a cable that device it’s a central node and all different nodes of computers are connected to the central node.

    • Ø -Hub can be upgraded easily.
    • Ø -Easy to troubleshoot.
    • Ø -Easy to modify.
    • Ø cost is high for installation.


    TREE TOPOLOGY

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    Tree topology in networking

    All nodes of the computer are connected to the root node in the form of a hierarchy structure.

    • ü -used in WAN
    • ü -easily maintained
    • ü Easily managed
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       MESH TOPOLOGY

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    Mesh topology in networking


    One type of data in exchange for all network nodes without using any routing logic and protocol.

    • §  -not flexible
    • §  -fully connected
    • §  -it is robust
    • §  -cost is high

       HYBRID TOPOLOGY

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    Hybrid topology in networking


    It is a combination of two different topologies for example if in a campus one department used a ring topology and another department used star topology, connecting this topology is called Hybrid topology.

    • ü -Effective
    • ü -flexible
    • ü -complex design
    • ü -very costly.


    Types of cable used in a wired network:-

    Shield twisted pair (STP)

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    Shielded twisted pair cable


    • Ø -Twisted pair is a copper wire its used to connect home and office computers to the telephone company.
    • Ø -twisted pair is same time install in more pair.
    • Ø -shield twisted pair is more costly as compare to UTP(unshielded twisted pair).
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    Unshielded twisted pair(UTP)

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    Unshielded twisted pair cable


    • v -Unshielded Twisted Pair its also a copper cable and it consists of 1000 twisted pairs surrounded by an outer layer(jacket).
    • v -Unshielded Twisted Pair its easy to install and low cost.
    • v large number of pairs available corresponding to more bandwidth.
    • v -RJ-45 connector is used for Unshielded Twisted Pair cable.

    Optical fiber

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    Optical fiber cable


    • ü -It used to transmitted data over large distance and at the higher bandwidth.
    • ü -Optical fiber included a core surrounded by cladding material.
    • ü -It is very expansive.

    Coaxial cable.

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    coaxial cable

    • v -it is used in cable TV to connect satellite.
    • v -supporting speed up to 10 Mbps.
    • v -It is also used in aircraft, medical equipment, etc.
    • a






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